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During the later decades of the 1st century, Londinium expanded rapidly, becoming Great Britain's largest city.

By the turn of the century, Londinium had grown to about 60,000 people, almost certainly replacing Camulodunum (Colchester) as the provincial capital and by the 2nd century, Londinium was at its height.

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A round temple has been located west of the city, although its dedication remains unclear.

Substantial suburbs existed at St Martin-in-the-Fields in Westminster and around the southern end of the Thames bridge in Southwark, where inscriptions suggest a temple of Isis was located).

it was long derived from an eponymous founder named Lud, son of Heli. Instead, the Latin name was probably based on a native Brittonic placename reconstructed as *Londinion.

The site guarded the Romans' bridgehead on the north bank of the Thames and a major road nexus.

The Roman city ultimately covered at least the area of the City of London, whose boundaries are largely defined by its former wall.

Londinium's waterfront on the Thames ran from around Ludgate Hill in the west to the present site of the Tower in the east, around 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi).

Its forum and basilica were one of the largest structures north of the Alps, when the Emperor Hadrian visited Londinium in 122.

Excavations have discovered evidence of a major fire that destroyed most of the city shortly thereafter, but the city was again rebuilt.

(It was customary elsewhere to name roads after the emperor during whose principate they were completed, but the number and vicinity of routes completed during the time of Claudius would seem to have made this impractical in Britain's case.) The road from the Kentish ports of Rutupiae (Richborough), Dubris (Dover), and Lemanis (Lympne) via Durovernum (Canterbury) seems to have first crossed the Thames at a natural ford near Westminster before being diverted north to the new bridge at London.

This route, now known as Watling Street, then passed through the town from the bridgehead in a straight line to reconnect with its northern extension towards Viroconium (Wroxeter) and the legionary base at Deva Victrix (Chester).

In the year 60 or 61, the rebellion of the Iceni under Boudica forced the garrison to abandon the settlement, which was then razed.

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