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efrog in Welsh, eabhrac in Irish Gaelic and eabhraig in Scottish Gaelic, by which names the city is known in those languages); or less probably, Eburos, 'property', which is a personal Celtic name mentioned in different documents as Eβουρος, Eburus and Eburius, and which, combined with the same suffix *-āko(n), could denote a property.The name Eboracum became the Anglian Eoforwic in the 7th century: a compound of Eofor-, from the old name, and -wic a village probably by conflation of the element Ebor- with a Germanic root *eburaz (boar); by the 7th century the Old English for 'boar' had become eofor.

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Alternatively, the word eofor already existed as an Old English word for wild swine, which is a cognate of the current Low Saxon word eaver and Dutch ever.

The Anglo-Saxon newcomers probably interpreted the ebor part as eofor, and -rac as ric (meaning rich), while -um was (and is) a common abbreviation of the Saxon -heem, meaning home. As is common in Saxon place names, the -um part gradually faded; eoforic.

The form York was first recorded in the 13th century.

Archaeological evidence suggests that Mesolithic people settled in the region of York between 80 BC, although it is not known whether their settlements were permanent or temporary.

In 866, Northumbria was in the midst of internecine struggles when the Vikings raided and captured York.

Under Viking rule the city became a major river port, part of the extensive Viking trading routes throughout northern Europe.

Old Irish ibar "yew-tree", Welsh efwr "alder buckthorn", Breton evor "alder buckthorn") and suffix *-āko(n) "place" (cf.

Welsh -og) meaning either "place of the yew trees" (cf.

In 311 AD a bishop from York attended the Council at Arles to represent Christians from the province.

While the Roman colonia and fortress were located on high ground, by 400 AD the town was victim to occasional flooding from the Rivers Ouse and Foss and the population reduced.

In the following century Alcuin of York came to the cathedral school of York.

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